Sunday, July 11, 2010

Kitap: Beyond Culture

Beyond Culture (Edward T. Hall, 1976, 298 sayfa) kültürler arası anlayış farklarından örnekler vererek birbirimizi anlamanın güçlüklerini ve çözüm yollarını anlatıyor.

[p.1] ...technical solutions that can be applied to environmental problems can't be applied rationally until mankind transcends the intellectual limitations imposed by our intitutions, our philosophies, and our cultures.

[p.3] ...unless human beings can learn to pull together and regulate consumption and production patterns, they are headed for disaster. It is impossible to cooperate or to do any of these things unless we know each other's way of thinking.

[p.6] ...many people's sense of worth is directly related to the number of situations in which they are in control, which means that many people have problems with their self-image because they are clearly in control of so little.

[p.11] The dellusional aspects have to do with the institutionalized necessity to control "everything", and the widely accepted notion that the bureaucrat knows what is best...

[p.53] The force of his own cultural stereotypes will be so strong that it will distort what he sees; he will delude himself that he knows what's going on before his eyes. This, of course, is a most dangerous and risky situation and one that unfortunately is all too common.

[p.68] ...their [Japanese] drive to be close and get to know other people is very strong - in some cases, more than the detached European is either used to or can stand... The American provides a real contrast. He is inclined to be more oriented toward achieving set goals and less
toward developing close human relations.

[p.69]... understanding oneself and understanding others are closely related processes. To do one, you must start with the other, and vice versa.

[p.85] One of the functions of culture is to provide a highly selective screen between man and the outside world. In its many forms, culture therefore designates what we pay attention to and what we ignore. This screening function provides structure for the world and protects the nervous system from "information overload".

[p.138] Extreme crowding can be tolerated if everyone behaves, talks, thinks, and feels according to the dictates of a common patterns.

[p.149] The drive toward responsive government is a basic one stemming from the need to be heard and to influence the outcome of events that control one's very existence.

[p.150] ...polychronic cultures often place completion of the job in a special category much below the importance of being nice, courteous, considerate, kind, and sociable to other human beings... poly-chronic people are much more vulnerable to anger once it gets started. As a
consequence, their action chains are built around human relations.

[p.152] Like Freud's unconscious, the cultural unconscious is actively hidden and, like Freud's patients, one is forever driven by processes that cannot be examined without outside help.

[p.184] Culture makes the average bright but may also dull the brilliant.

[p.204] In schools discipline is substituted for the internal drive to learn.

[p.205] ...primates learn primarily from their peers., not from adults. Yet, few schools are organized according to these principles. Large classes force teachers into becoming disciplinarians. In this sense, school life is an excellent preparation for adult bureuacracies: it is designed less for learning than for teaching you who's boss and how bosses behave, and keeping order.

[p.208] ...many people learn better by teaching others, not by listening to professors.

[p.216] ...irrationality seldom looks irrational from the inside.

[p.240] Individuals who are willing to let others be themselves without paying a dreadful price for it are very rare indeed.

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